The frailty syndrome as an emergent state of parallel dysregulation in multiple physiological systems

Frailty is a clinical syndrome often present in older adults and characterized by a heightened vulnerability to stressors. The biological antecedents and etiology of frailty are unclear despite decades of research: frailty is associated with dysregulation in a wide range of physiological systems, but no specific cause has been identified. Here, we test predictions stemming from the hypothesis…